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Cambodia Tourism Sector

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Cambodia tourism is most economic transaction in development. There are many places to visit in Cambodia. Foreigner as Asean member countries are the fan of the most visiting in Cambodia. During their visiting, Cambodian make more income as well in supporting their living which mean economic developing in country. The most famous place that people visit during holidays are Siemreap, Preah Sihanouk. Why these two cities are so famous and attract to people.

Does Universal Values Exist?

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Universal values term, in press release held at Tubingen University (Germany) was defined as the existing of peace, freedom, social progress, equal rights, human dignity said by Secretary-General Kofi Annan on Global Ethics.[1] Universal values does not exist since people don’t want to value it. In my opinion, Democracy is one part that should be recognized as universal values by people who see value of democracy. In contrast, it was not values by people who used to lose hope according to its failing in history. However, it is not only that one reason, but it has so many reasons behind it as well, that cause them fail to believe in creating democracy strongly. For example in Islam country, as I had read in article of “Muslims and Democracy” written by Abdou Filali-Ansary (bio)[2] which focus on how to reform new conception from Islam to democracy system one. It is very important to note that, it will need many times and hard effort to reform it, and it also required by people themselves in setting up their idea to be positive to democracy. In this article, it also suggested for three elements to Islam to become the democracy country, which mean if people value democracy they can by use these three elements. The three elements which mentioned are: about the updating of religious conceptions but not to replicated, the rule of law changing, and growing of economic growth whenever democracy is adopting.

Democracy refers to a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state typically through elected representatives. [3] It represents people power to have right, to vote and choose the strong man to govern in their country, which is encouraging mindset to all people to have non-violence rather than aggressive action. However, among several Islamic country, Turkey was known as the only one country using Democracy system, which had faced so many challenges as well before recognized as a democracy country. Turkey provides right to citizen to have fair election right in vote ballot, to choose leader representative in controlling country rather than making military force and shaking problem as before (Bernard Lewis ,1994). [4] In contrary, other author named Micah Halpern issued article named “Turkey is Now a Democracy in Name Only” on August 3rd, 2016 which said Turkey called itself democracy but due to their action is not true (Micah Halpern,2016).[5] So there are two distinction idea from viewers on whether Turkey is fully running Democracy or not? Should I still thinking Universal Value exist?

By these ideas, I still thinking that, even democracy not fully existing, but it was seen by many people that is shall remain as democracy country, as we seen people has right to vote and choose the right leader which it is one element in Democracy system. So it comes from own will of people, that they has freedom to speech and decide who shall be their leader. At the same idea coming from Mohamba Ghanhi, he proclaim that he not care how universal value was recognized by everywhere people live, to acted according to this value, but they had good reason to see it as valuable. (Amartya Sen, 1999) [6]

And other example about democracy system, also not being seen as true as by many countries while they say democracy clearly exists. Example in North Korea, which its regime is The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea which Democratic republic as known as a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of citizens entitled to vote for officers and representatives responsible to them. [7] Election in North Korea is fair and open parliamentary elections that people can vote for candidate which best represent people’ interest. In election room, “there is only one box to tick, Astaining or voting no would be a dangerous act of treason, given that voting takes place in booths that do not provide any secrecy, and dissenting votes must be posted into a separate ballot box. Which mean voting is not in secret protection, which endanger”(Danuekke Wueber-Bronner, 2014). [8] Regarding to it, it can say that North Korea took democracy to govern, so people can enjoy right to vote, freedom of speech etc. But it not in democracy anyway. People secrecy is in revealing, so it is not called democracy because their right to vote is violated by state. So the way they vote is just to satisfy under the state controlling. By this case, it so very difficult to say it democracy or not, but i hopes it may call this is the good start to initiate democracy as well, and become the sample to the world of voting right by their own will.

Universal values has existed for now. That is democracy. I think democracy provide many rights to people, even in practicing is still in doubtful. However, democracy is better in describing as universal value, even it not yet consist in fully percent in practicing in the world. But it is an important to pass it through from now forward to future prospect, in order to provide and assure all people without discrimination, religion, sex, color, and political value to get equal right as much as possible.

 

Footnotes:

[1] United Nations (2003). Press Release on Universal Values. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/press/en/2003/sgsm9076.doc.htm

[2] Abdou Filail-Ansary (1999). Muslims and Democracy. National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press.

[3] http://www.OxfordDictionaries.com.

[4] Bernard Lewis (March, 1994). Why Turkey is the only Muslim Democracy (p. 41-49) Retrieved from www.meforum.org/216/why-turkey-is-the-only-muslim-democracy

[5] Micah Halpern (2016). Turkey is now a democracy in name only. Retrieved from http://www.observer.com/2016/03/turkey-is-now-a-democracy-in-name-only/

[6] Abdou Filail-Ansary (1999). Muslims and Democracy. National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press.

[7] Indexmundi (n.d.). North Korea Government Type. Retrieved from http://www.indexmundi.com/north_korea/government_type.html

[8] Danuekke Wueber-Bronner (2014). Yes, There are elections in North Korea and Here’s how they work. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/03/north-korea-elections-guide/358875/

Reference:

  1. United Nations (2003). Press Release on Universal Values. Retrieved from un.org/press/en/2003/sgsm9076.doc.htm
  2. Abdou Filail-Ansary (1999). Muslims and Democracy. National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press.
  3. oxfordDictionaries.com
  4. Bernard Lewis (March, 1994). Why Turkey is the only Muslim Democracy (p. 41-49) Retrieved from meforum.org/216/why-turkey-is-the-only-muslim-democracy
  5. Micah Halpern (2016). Turkey is now a democracy in name only. Retrieved from observer.com/2016/03/turkey-is-now-a-democracy-in-name-only/
  6. Abdou Filail-Ansary (1999). Muslims and Democracy. National Endowment for Democracy and the Johns Hopkins University Press.
  7. Indexmundi (n.d.). North Korea Government Type. Retrieved from indexmundi.com/north_korea/government_type.html
  8. Danuekke Wueber-Bronner (2014). Yes, There are elections in North Korea and Here’s how they work. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/03/north-korea-elections-guide/358875/

 

How Sustainable Development work for good to Global?

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After having read through the 3 chapters of the book ‘ The Age of Sustainable Development’, author named Jeffrey D. Sachs in the chapters include Introduction to Sustainable Development, An Unequal World, and A Brief History of Economic Development. It is very interesting and makes me more enjoy reading it as well, even sometimes, its key terms are hardly to understand and it demands more analyses to be clear of each paragraph meaning. Finally, please let me provide my understanding by reading and to show my reaction on each chapter, as below.

To getting more understand on how sustainable development works, author of the book provided us the introduction to Sustainable Development as in chapter 1. The author stated that to achieve the economic growth, social inclusion, sustainable environment of objective of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), good governance must be achieved first. I strongly agree with that statement as well as to what i expect. Good governance shall be work well in its own country and this plays in a major path to development of sustainability. Good governance comes from good policy and policy maker must make sure that policy they are making, must meet the now people and future generation needs without compromising. However, it is also difficult issue that not one can satisfy to every man in this world, so policy maker just ensure that the policy is satisfied by maximum people’s needs, this is what i think. The good policy of country goals is to provide its citizens, to achieve sustainable development such as economic growth (ending poverty, increase GDP, free market with competitive price), social inclusion (health and well-being, quality of education, safe water and sanitation to all people, peace and freedom, justice and strong institution to govern and protect people without discrimination due to race, sex, politic, etc.,), sustainable environment (access to modern energy, climate control). So, what about bad policy? How can we enforce it to be efficiency for good? So how would sustainable exist in long run? As stated above that, to have sustainable development, we must achieve the economic growth, social inclusion and sustainable environment. But before we can also achieve them, we must make sure we already achieved the good governance.

Unequal World in chapter 2 provides me, a new learning about rural and urban area which are not always exists in some country, which i have never known it before. It is surprisingly. My country in Cambodia, have both rural and urban area. However such as in Hong Kong and Singapore which is a small-city-states where there is no rural area. But author stated that it depend on the threshold of people live to divide whether in rural or in urban area. The author of this chapter are concerning with what factors differ between rural and urban area? Income within countries? How to deal with it? The thing is that in rural, there are less people live there than urban area where there are more people live and work. People come to urban area to find work with high income, while in rural area income is lower. Differences of income due to the area they work, discrimination at workplace, low education, etc., It not only differs in one country itself but within countries. The best solution is that government play as best actor in this situation. Government must adopt policy that would maintain the equality with efficiency, by enforcing rule and law, which provide equal right of men and women, provide education and healthy support to poor people etc., But what if citizen itself never respects their own of the policy of government? It would also make difficult and it shall inefficiency to practice. So it requires people itself to get involve and respect to policy as well just to make own country and other country become equal with efficiency together. However, government policy also needs to maintain not only equality of income but also to life satisfaction and well-being and all kinds of sustainable development term.               13237689_833348850142988_1339250996451350645_n

(Source: HEALTHADORE.com)

For chapter 3, author stated about technology, which is part of economic growth in world since many centuries ago, until now. It provided many things to fulfill the need of the world, and it created modern world as today including infrastructure, electricity, smartphone, etc., Because of that, people have comfortable living with modern society that would satisfy them for communication in business, education and sharing information across country. So the more facilitation people gain, the more economic would increase rapidly. However, I think even technology very important to economic grow, it also affect to society as well, if we use it in wrong way. So it just need to ensure that technology must be sustainable.

Finally, all of above of my reaction, make me more clear of what sustainable development means, how to make equality of world of not only income earning, but life satisfaction and well-being, and I also know how economic growth rapidly since many years ago by technology development.

Copyright©2016 Sreyrun Mean, All rights reserved

“The Good Public Policy, The Country Development Will Be .”

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The public policy always changing due to the time. Public policy is a foundamental rule to govern and need much concentrating on for making it efficiently to practice and make enforcement. It composes of both International law and National constitutional laws and regulations, and it were be taken by the administrative executive branches of the state in action to promote stronger economy, high quality of education, culture and art protection, help poor and needy in reducing crime/social security, unemployment rate reduction, strengthen public health care treatment wih improving cost and its services, corruption elimination, reduce political tendency, serve justice, security reinforce, protection to human rights; especially to woman and child’s rights guarantee, respond to any public problem and issue at hand, make it sustainable development, and any means to ensure the public interests in large attentions.

To make efficiently in public policy implementation, It required the vigorous commitment efforts by government and citizen themselves in making it possible turning to the positive hard-working to define the problem, identify causes, select best solutions, develop solutions, evaluate a policy, evaluate benefits & costs, utilize the price system, develop political strategies response to public interests. And just because of this, as in name of Cambodian citizen, and to more strengthen in my future career goal as to my people, we need to learn and do a research more in that field “ Public Policy”

Public policy is play an important role as it provides lots of benefit to people and also to government to establish justice, peace, freedom, corruption elimination, security to all people around the world and to secure our art and culture also to natural resource protection.

Credit to: Sreyrun

PS. For study purpose only.